Architectural styles of Modern and Contemporary times.
By the end of 16-beginning. 17 in. The strict symmetry and harmony of the Renaissance were replaced by a new architectural style — Baroque (from Italian. barocco-fancy, fancy). L. Levo. The Palace of Versailles. West facade. 1687 -1688. France.
Characteristic features of the Baroque The existing canons of architecture were revised and destroyed. Structures were created with an abundance of complex, curved forms, lush decorative ornaments that distort the classical proportions. The movement of the Baroque buildings gave the effect of optical illusion, as well as the continuous bizarre play of light and shadow.
The most significant changes have occurred in the design of the facades of buildings. * Dissonance and asymmetry • Richly decorated wall • Portals, doors, and windows have reached unimaginable sizes. * Intricate scrolls, cartouches, garlands of leaves and herbs, and human figures covered the surfaces of the walls, gables, and architraves.
In different European countries, the formation and flourishing of the Baroque had its own characteristic features. Extremely contradictory opinions about this style ( from enthusiastic to sharply negative) still do not prevent you from appreciating the works of Baroque architecture.
Christopher Wren. St. Paul’s Cathedral. 1675 -1720. London.
In Russia, the Baroque is represented by the architectural creations of V. V. Rastrelli: the Winter Palace, the ensemble of the Smolny Monastery, the Anichkov, Vorontsov, Stroganov palaces ( all in St. Petersburg), the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo.
At the end of 17-beginning. 18th century. The ornate Baroque style gave way to classicism. Taking the ancient art and traditions of the Renaissance as a model, representatives of the new artistic style created unsurpassed architectural monuments. Clarity and restraint, calmness and dignity, respect for correctness and order — this is how you can define the essence of classicist architecture.
Characteristic features of classicism. * Solemn clarity of geometry and space. Simple and strict forms • Calm harmony of proportions • Unobtrusive, emphasizing the shape of the decor, repeating the outlines of the object • Practicality and expediency • Clarity of volumes • Nobility, restraint and laconism of finishing * Balance of composition • Regularity of layout. * Regularity, rhythm • Order, ” golden ratio»
In the countries of Europe, classicism existed until the beginning. 19 in, then, changing, it was revived in the new, neoclassical trends of the 19th-20th centuries. One of the stages of the development of the classical style was the Empire, which developed at the turn of the 18th-19th centuries and reached its heyday during the Napoleonic Empire (1804 -1814).
Empire • Ceremonial palaces and mausoleums • Triumphal arches, columns • Reliefs on the frieze • Imitation of ancient Roman sculpture • Attributes of military glory • A Greek warrant.
Russian classicism In Russia, classicism went through several stages in its development and reached an unprecedented scale in the reign of Catherine II. Bazhenov-Pashkov House in Moscow, Andrey Voronikhin-Kazan Cathedral Adrian Zakharov-Admiralty.
In architecture of the 2nd floor of the 19th century. There was a style crisis. But still new styles and trends were born: eclecticism and art Nouveau. Ecl ktikae — a trend in architecture that dominated Europe and Russia in the 1830s-1890s. The eclecticism uses elements of “historical” architectural styles: Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Baroque, Neo-Rococo, Neo-Gothic, Pseudo-Russian style, Neo-Byzantine style, Indo-Saracen style, Neo-Moorish style) Eclecticism is characterized, on the one hand , by all the features of European architecture of the XV — XVIII centuries, and on the other — it has fundamentally different properties. Eclecticism retains the architectural order (unlike Art Nouveau, which does not use the order ), but in it it has lost its exclusivity. The shapes and styles of a building in eclecticism are tied to its function. So, in Russian practice, the Russian style of K. A. Ton became the official style of church building, but was practically not used in private buildings. Eclecticism is “multi-profile” in the sense that buildings of the same period are based on different style schools, depending on the purpose of the buildings (churches, public buildings, factories, private houses) and on the customer’s funds (rich decor that fills all the surfaces of the building and economical “red-brick” architecture coexist). This is the fundamental difference between eclecticism and Empire style, which dictated a single style for buildings of any type.
Charles Garnier. Grand Opera, 1861 -1875. Paris The Grand Opera combines the features of the Italian Renaissance, Baroque and Empire style. John Nash. Royal Pavilion, 1815 -1823, Brighton. Great Britain was built in the first half of the XIX century as the residence of the Prince of Wales, the future King George IV. The facade of the building is a mixture of Indian, Moorish and Chinese.
Modern. It was a genuine revival of architecture, a new qualitative step in its development. Asymmetric spatial compositions that combined volumes of different scales and shapes into one whole were made in a single stylistic key.
The expressiveness of flowing rhythms, the color and texture of building materials, the decorative design of facades and interiors were given special importance in modern architecture. In the decoration of houses and public buildings, stained glass windows, panels, decorative sculpture, wrought bent iron, patterned ceramic tiles, and fabrics were used.
The idea of the organic unity of architecture with the environment has become very important. Plants, shells, fish scales, the play of water flows have become favorite motifs of architectural structures. Art Nouveau in architecture has manifested itself in all countries of Europe and America. Franz Schechtel Ryabushinsky mansion.
Art Nouveau became the starting point for the development of modern architecture. The ideas of rationalism and constructivism resulted in a new direction – functionalism. Functional (useful) tasks caused a new type of construction: railway stations, factories, factories, bridges, etc. By 60 -70 years of the XX century. It gives way to postmodernism, one of the directions of which has become high-tech.