10 majestic monuments of architecture
10 majestic monuments of architecture, on which you can write the chronicle of human civilization.
- Kaaba (Masjid al-Haram)
The Kaaba (Masjid al-Haram) is a cube-shaped building located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is considered the holiest site in Islam, as well as the oldest and most famous cultural monument in the world.
The Qur’an says that the Kaaba was built by Abraham (Ibrahim in Arabic) and his son Ismail, after the latter settled in Arabia. A mosque, Masjid al-Haram, was built around this building. All Muslims around the world turn to face the Kaaba during prayers, no matter where they are.
One of the five basic laws of Islam requires every Muslim to make the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. In this case, the Kaaba must be circled seven times counterclockwise (if viewed from above).
- Taj Mahal.
The Taj Mahal (“Crown of Palaces”) is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by the Mughal Empire’s Padishah Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely regarded as “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the world’s internationally recognized masterpieces of world heritage”. The area of the Taj Mahal is about 221 hectares (38 hectares is occupied by the mausoleum itself and 183 hectares of protected forest around it).
- Egyptian pyramids.
A total of 138 pyramids were discovered in Egypt. Most of them were built as tombs for the pharaohs and their wives during the Ancient and Middle Kingdoms. These are some of the oldest famous cultural monuments.
The earliest known Egyptian pyramids were found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. And the oldest of them is the Pyramid of Djoser, built in 2630-2611 BC, during the third dynasty. This pyramid and the surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep and are generally considered to be the world’s oldest monumental structures made of bricks with facing.
- The Great Wall of China.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, rammed earth, wood and other materials, built along the historical northern borders of China to protect the country from the invasions of various warlike peoples.
Several walls were built in the 7th century BC, and later they were completed, combining them into what is now known as the Great Wall. Especially famous is the part of the wall built between 220-206 BC by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (very little remains of it).
- Angkor Thom (Greater Angkor)
Angkor Thom is a 3-square-kilometer walled royal city that was the last capital of the Khmer Empire. After Jayavarman VII recaptured Yashodharapura (the previous capital) from the invaders from Champa in 1181, he built a new imperial capital on the site of the destroyed city. He started with existing surviving structures such as Bapuon and Phimeanakas and built a majestic walled city around them, adding an outer wall with a moat and some of Angkor’s greatest temples. The city has five entrances( gates), one on each side of the world and the Victory Gate leading to the area of the Royal Palace. Each gate is topped with four giant faces.
- The Acropolis of Athens.
The Acropolis of Athens, also called “Cecropia” in Athens, is the most important place in the city and one of the most recognizable monuments in the world. It is the main landmark of ancient Greek culture, as well as a symbol of the city of Athens itself, since it represents the apogee of artistic development in the V century BC.
- National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall.
The Chiang Kai-shek National Memorial Hall is a famous monument and local landmark erected in memory of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, the former President of the Republic of China. It is located in the Chinese city of Taipei. The monument, surrounded by a park, is built in the eastern part of the Memorial Square. To the north of it is the National Theater, and to the south is the National Concert Hall.
- Potala Palace.
The Potala Palace is located in Lhasa, Tibet. It is named after Mount Potalaka, the mythical abode of Chenresig or Avalokiteshwar. The Potala Palace was the main residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala, India, during the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1959.
Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the fifth Grand Dalai Lama, began the construction of the Potala Palace in 1645 after one of his spiritual advisers, Konchog Chopel, noted that the location between the Drepung and Sera monasteries and the old city of Lhasa was ideal for the location of the government. As a result, the Potala was built on the remains of an earlier fortress, called the White or Red Palace, built by the king of Tibet Songtsen Gampo in 637. Today, the Potala Palace is a museum.
- The Statue of Liberty.
The Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States of America, and it is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy. The statue of Liberty was opened on October 28, 1886, and in 1924 it was recognized as a National monument. .
- Mosque Of Sultan Ahmed.
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque is a historic mosque in Istanbul, Turkey’s largest city and the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923. It is also commonly known as the” Blue Mosque ” because of the blue tiles that line its walls.
The mosque was built from 1609 to 1616 during the reign of Ahmed I. Although it is still used as a mosque, the site has also become a popular attraction.
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