Famous New Yorkers.
Many talents flourished in New York. Pop art was born here, and Manhattan is still the center of contemporary art today. The writers of the 1950s and 1960s-known as the “lost generation” – drew their inspiration from urban jazz clubs. The city is considered the financial capital of the world, so many financiers chose New York.
Writers Published in 1791, the book “Charlotte’s Castle” by Susannah Rawson, telling about the temptations of the city, became a bestseller.
The first professional American writer was Charles Brockden Brown (1771-1810). The novels of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) expanded the horror genre. Henry James (1843-1916) published The Bostonians (1886) and became famous as a master of psychological short stories, and his friend Edith Wharton (1861-1937) became known for satirical short stories.
Finally, American literature gained international recognition with the appearance of the satirical works of Washington Irving (1783-1859)” History of New York ” (1809). This work brought him an income of $ 2,000. Thanks to Irving, New York got the name “gawser” (“bad”), and its inhabitants – “knickerbocker” (“the Dutchman in suspenders”). It was he who, along with James Fenimore Cooper, founded the Knickerbocker group of American writers.
The Greenwich Village area has always attracted writers, including Herman Melville (1819-1891), whose masterpiece “Moby Dick” (1851) was initially received very coolly. Jack Kerouac (1922-69), Allen Ginsberg, and William Burrows all attended Columbia University and frequented the San Remo Cafe in Greenwich.
Dylan Thomas (1914– 1953) lived at the Chelsea Hotel. The novelist Nathaniel West (1902-1940) worked at the Gramercy Park Hotel, where Dashiell Hammett (1894– 1961) wrote The Maltese Falcon. James Baldwin (1924-1987), born in Harlem, wrote “A Foreign Country” in 1963 after returning to New York from Europe.
Artists The first American art direction was founded by the New York School of Abstract Expressionists, led by Hans Hoffmann (1880-1966), who, once in America, first painted houses together with Franz Kline and Willem de Koning. Later, Adolf Gottlieb, Mark Rothko (1903-1970), and Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) worked in this style. Pollock, Kleene, and de Koning had studios on the Lower East Side. Pop art began in New York City in the 1960s with the arrival of Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol (1926-1987). A very prolific graffiti artist was Keith Haring (1958-1990).
Robert Maplethorpe (1946-1989) gained his share of fame for his homoerotic photographs of men.
Richard Haas ‘ fantastic wall paintings enliven many walls throughout the city.
Actors In 1849, British actor Charles Macready’s claim that Americans were vulgar led to riots. The crowd stormed the Astor Place Opera House, where Macready played Macbeth, and the police opened fire – 22 of the attackers were killed. In 1927, the actress Maine West (1893-1980) was imprisoned for 10 days in the Roosevelt Island House of Correction and fined $500 for her lascivious performance of “Flirt”on Broadway. Mark Blitzstein’s radical, working-class-sympathetic musical The Cradle Will Rock, directed by Orson Welles (1915-1985) and John Houseman (1902-1988), was immediately banned and the production moved to another theater. Florence
Ziegfeld’s Mad Men (1869-1932) was performed from 1907 to 1931. With the production of “Oklahoma!” on Broadway in 1943, the era of musicals of the famous Richard Rodgers (1902-1979) and Oscar Hammerstein (1895-1960) began.
On the stages of Off-Broadway, the first to perform the production of “Beyond the Horizon” (1920) by Eugene 0’nil (1888-1953) was the Province Players Company. Their successor was Edward Albee, author of “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?” (1962).
Musicians and dancers Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990) took over from a galaxy of outstanding conductors of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, including Bruno Walter (1876-1962), Arthur Toscanini (1867-1957), and Leopold Stokowski (1882-1977). The Great Maria Callas was born in New York City. Enrico Caruso (1873-1921), Bob Dylan, and the Beatles performed at Carnegie Hall.
Legendary in the 1930s and 1940s, clubs that played swing jazz have now moved off 52nd Street. Only the plaques commemorating such great performers as Charlie Parker (1920-1955) and Josephine Baker (1906-1975), installed on the “Jazz Alley” outside the CBS building, remain.
Between 1940 and 1965, New York City became the world capital of ballet thanks to George Balanchine (1904-1983), who founded the New York City Ballet and the American Ballet Theater. In addition, in 1958, choreographer Alvin Ailey (1931-1989) founded the American Dance Theater, while Bob Foss (1927-1987) revolutionized the world of musicals. Industrialists and entrepreneurs.
Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), this” baron of steel with a heart of gold”, started his career from scratch, and by the time of his death he had given away $ 350 million. Many charitable foundations are established by wealthy philanthropists. Some, like Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877), in an effort to forget the difficult past, became patrons of the arts. Through stock manipulation, two financiers – Jay Gould (1836-1892) and James Fisk (1834-1872) – took the Airy Railroad from Vanderbilt. In September, 1869. they caused the first Black Friday on Wall Street by trying to bring down the gold market, but they had to flee when the fraud was uncovered. Nevertheless, Gould died a billionaire, and Fisk died in a fight over a woman.
Modern entrepreneurs include Donald Trump, the owner of Trump Tower ,and Leon and Harry (now deceased) Helmsley. Despite Leone’s incarceration for tax evasion, their real estate empire, which includes New York locations such as the Helmsley Building, remained intact.
Architects Cass Gilbert (1858-1934), who built such neo-Gothic skyscrapers as the Woolworth Building in 1913, was one of those who shaped the face of the city. In the lobby of this building, you can see his caricature sculpture, clutching a model of his creation in his hands. Stan-Ford White (1853-1906) became famous both for his scandalous personal life, and for such beautiful buildings in the Beaux-Arts style as the “Gambling Club”. Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) erected the Guggenheim Museum. Ludwig Miss van der Rohe (1886-1969), who built the Singram Building, believed that you can not “create another new style in the architecture of the city every mile.” But many argue that this is what happens regularly in New York.