The architecture of the ancient world.
The ancient world is called the era of civilizations of Greece and Rome in the period from the XII-VIII century BC to the IV-V century AD, Ancient Rome inherited the achievements of Greek civilization.
The architecture of Ancient Greece.
The Greeks made a change in the composition of the temple: they took the altar outside the temple (the temple of Artemis Orphia in Sparta, where the altar was located opposite the entrance to the temple).
The simplest type of Greek temple is the “temple in the antae”: on the facade, a triangular pediment is supported by projections of longitudinal walls, between which two columns bearing an entablature are placed. The addition of four columns in front of the entrance created a more complex type of temple-the prostil; the amphiprostil (double prostil) has the same portico at the back of the temple. The addition of columns from the sides of the temple created a peripterum-a temple surrounded by a colonnade. The colonnade became the main artistic means of Greek architecture. The use of colonnades gave public buildings and temples an open character and allowed them to be spatially connected with the surrounding nature.
The rack-and-beam structure (order) was the basis for the creation of a new tectonic system. There were natural relationships and the order of arrangement of structural elements, the rules of their decorative development were established.
Ancient Greek architecture is characterized by the dismemberment of parts of buildings on the basis of a building module, which was based on the size of any part of the building. This modular proportionality made it easier to prepare parts of the building in quarries and assemble the building from ready-made parts. Artistically, this gives clarity of the divisions, proportionality of all parts of the building.
Doric order: the base is a stereobate, the trunk of the column is wider at the bottom, tapering at the top, got the shape from a tree trunk. In the trunk of the column, longitudinal grooves were made-flutes (from Lat. “canna” – reed). The flutes collect shadows and reveal the round shape of the column in any light. The trunk of the column is slightly thickened in the lower third, which disappears in a smooth curve (entasis). This gives an idea of the intense work of the column, increases the impression of constructive truthfulness. The capital of the column is an echin, covered with an abaca plate on top. It is supported by an architrave beam supporting the frieze and cornice of the Doric order. The ceiling-entablature, supported by columns, consists of an architrave, a frieze and a cornice. The frieze is formed by the ends of (wooden) cross beams, which were covered with triglyph boards. Between the triglyphs there were plates (metopes) with images associated with the purpose of a temple or a public building. On the lower face of the cornice plate, protrusions with drops (mutules) were arranged above the triglyphs.