Architecture is a rather complex and ambiguous phenomenon. And especially-the architecture of Ufa, a city located between Europe and Asia, where the styles of these countries of the world are intricately intertwined: restrained, strict European, and lush, whimsically pompous-Asian.
Under the rule of eclecticism in architecture, it is the diverse combination that is the search for truth, design unity and uniqueness. But how to create a masterpiece? After all, a competent combination of not only the architecture of different countries, but also of different eras is a real Skill, not everyone can do it.
The modern development of Ufa is a vivid proof of this. How to choose and implement a project that not only competently and organically fits into the ancient and modern buildings of the city, but also allows you to express yourself, not to get lost in the grandeur and variety of other architectural masterpieces of this city with a rich history?
Of course, this task is not easy, but it is quite feasible, given the variety of modern materials and construction technologies. Many of them are restored old techniques, adapted to the new conditions. Therefore, you can not just restore or copy the architectural masterpieces of the past, but also create your own works, taking as a basis the ideas of the great masters of the past, modernizing and developing their thought, enriching your creativity.
Sometimes it is difficult to understand whether the building in front of us is modern or old. And this also shows the uniqueness of the architecture of Ufa, in a clear balance and bright style of the city’s development.
Principles of architecture.
The architecture of the XX century is a unique phenomenon in the history of world architecture, striking in its dissimilarity to all previous architectural styles. The ideas of rationalism and constructivism that were born at the beginning of the century (simplicity, utilitarianism and economy) received a new powerful direction – functionalism, called the international (international) style.
The main objects of the application of architectural thought are now functional structures of a new type: railway stations, factories, factories, bridges, public institutions and, of course, human habitation. American architect Louis Sullivan (1856-1924), who proclaimed the slogan “form follows function”, believed that a person’s house should resemble “the home of bees”. Therefore, it is necessary to build “hives for people” – uniform, standard structures in which a person will feel like an integral part of himself or herself as an integral part of the giant urban biosphere.
The new ideas and principles of architecture read:
- architecture should be light and give a feeling of floating; – architecture should subdue the huge streams of light inside the building and learn to beat the light effects from the outside; – thanks to new materials and technologies, architecture should learn to operate with integral spaces of huge dimensions.
The architecture of the late XIX-early XX centuries demonstrated the spirit and power of the industrial era. Stone and wood gave way to concrete, steel structures, light and strong aluminum, large surfaces of glass forming huge facades and arches, and then plastics. Built at the end of the XIX century. The Eiffel Tower in Paris and the Brooklyn Bridge in New York showed not only the possibilities of new steel structures, but also the lightness, height and length.
Relying on the best achievements of world architecture, mastering new materials and technologies, the architects of the XX century had an exceptional opportunity to experiment. Improvisation has now become the main principle of their creative activity. Researcher V. M. Polevoy defined new trends in the work of the architect in this way:
“When designing a mansion or villa, he discards all the traditional, predetermined rules of symmetry, the axial construction of the plan and facade, the regular division of floors and the location of windows, etc.The body of the building is formed according to the needs of the customer and the tastes of the architect… Architecture focuses on creating a kind of everyday aesthetic comfort.”
The new Art Nouveau style clearly manifested itself in architectural structures. Compared to the” lull ” of the XIX century. it was a genuine revival of architecture, a new stage in its rapid and rapid development. Asymmetric spatial compositions that combined volumes of different scales and shapes into one whole were made in a single style key.
Exceptional importance was attached to the expressiveness of the flowing rhythms, color and texture of the building materials. Masterly mastery of various means of decorative design of facades and interiors has become a sign of the times. The decoration of homes and public buildings included stained glass windows, panels, decorative sculpture, wrought bent iron, patterned irrigation ceramic tiles, fabrics.
The idea of the organic unity of architecture with the environment was of particular importance. The architects were inspired by everything that resembled wildlife: plants, shells, fish scales, the play of water flows. Everything was designed to ennoble everyday life and bring beauty to it.
Art Nouveau in architecture has shown itself in almost all countries of Europe, he said, and in America. Having completed his creative search at the beginning of the XX century, he became the starting point for the development of architecture from Art Nouveau to constructivism.
Gustave Eiffel also designed La Rouche in Paris, which, like the Eiffel Tower, became a landmark of the city. This rounded three-story structure, which looks like a huge beehive, was created for temporary use as a wine rotunda at the Great Exhibition of 1900. Eiffel also designed the Garabi Viaduct, a railway bridge near the ruins of en Margerid in the Cantal region.
“Most people know about ecological or green new buildings, but this is also achievable in historic buildings, and with some tricks, the building can be turned into a more productive workplace.”